Prevention of Overuse Golf Injuries

Prevention and treatment of common overuse golf injuries is an important topic if you plan to spend a lot of time on the golf course this season. The repetitive motion of your swing can lead to excessive stress on your joints, muscles and ligaments. If you know some simple tips for prevention, you can decrease the likelihood of being sidelined by an injury.

Common Overuse Golf Injuries

  • Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)
  • Medial epicondylitis (golfer’s elbow)
  • Rotator cuff injuries
  • Wrist injuries such as tendonitis or sprains
  • Back pain caused by rotational stress on the spine
  • Hip injuries including muscle strain or hip instability
  • Knee pain resulting from rotational strain

Prevention of Overuse Golf Injuries

As a non-contact, low intensity sport, most people tend to underestimate the risk of injury in golf. However, the repetitive nature of the sport along with the use of several major muscle groups makes golfers prone to injury. If you follow a few simple guidelines, you can help prevent injury rather than seeking treatment after the fact.

  • Strengthen your core muscles with abdominal exercises.
  • Warm up by doing full body stretches.
  • Increase flexibility by doing yoga or pilates.
  • Focus on proper posture, especially as muscles tend to fatigue toward the end of your round on the course.
  • Correct your swing to ensure proper form to reduce stress on vulnerable areas.
  • Use appropriate footwear to help keep your feet grounded while you swing, especially during the follow through stage.

If you are suffering from a golf related injury, it is best to seek treatment from an orthopaedic specialist. Some injuries can be treated at home with rest, ice, heat and/or over the counter pain relievers. However, if your injury worsens or does not improve with these methods, it is best to see an orthopaedic surgeon to determine better treatment options.

Broken Toe: When to Seek Treatment

A broken toe can cause significant pain, often limiting mobility. If you have ever dropped something on your toe or simply jammed it, you know how painful this type of injury can be. But how do you know if seeking treatment is necessary for your toe injury?

If you are suffering pain resulting from a trauma to one of your toes, it is wise to determine whether or not you have a fracture. A broken toe (toe fracture) can have a range of symptoms.

Symptoms of a Broken Toe

  • Swelling
  • Throbbing pain
  • Inability to bear weight or walk on the impacted foot
  • Bruising
  • Numbness
  • Sensitive to touch
  • Inability to bend the impacted toe

How do you know that your toe pain needs medical treatment outside of home care? If the pain causes limited mobility and the pain does not subside with the use of rest, ice, compression and elevation, it is wise to seek evaluation from a foot and ankle orthpaedic surgeon. Specifically, a fellowship trained foot and ankle surgeon would be able to assess and offer appropriate treatment options.

Treatment of a Broken Toe

Once a doctor has determined that you have a broken toe, your treatment will depend on the type of fracture you have sustained. This will vary on a case by case basis.

  • Use of a rigid shoe: In order to support and protect your toe, a rigid shoe with room for a swollen toe, might be recommended until the pain and swelling has decreased.
  • Buddy taping: Securing your broken toe by taping it to the adjacent toe can help protect and support the injured toe. This technique can help reduce pain and provide stability for the broken toe.
  • Surgery: While most broken toes can be treated in the office, there are times when a fracture requires surgical intervention. If your toe is significantly displaced, use of pins to re-set the toe can be required.
  • Toe manipulation: In the case of a broken toe that is crooked or displaced, realignment of the impacted toe might be necessary. After first numbing the toe, the doctor can reduce the fracture and put it back into place.
  • Casting: In order to keep pieces of a fractured toe properly in place, a doctor might suggest the use of a walking cast.

If you suspect you have broken your toe, attempt to decrease your pain and swelling at home and schedule an appointment with an orthopaedic surgeon to determine if further treatment is needed.


Torn Meniscus: Symptoms,Diagnosis and Treatment

Torn Meniscus

A torn meniscus is one of the most common orthopaedic injuries. Located in the knee, the meniscus is a piece of cartilage that cushions the area between your shinbone and thigh bone. Each knee actually has two, c-shaped menisci. They act to absorb shock in the knee joint. When the knee is twisted or rotated with force, a tear in the meniscus result. This can cause a significant amount of pain in the knee.


  • swelling or stiffness in the knee joint
  • feeling of a “popping” sensation during a forceful twist of the knee
  • the sensation that your knee is “locked” in place, unable to move
  • difficulty straightening the knee
  • feeling substantial pain while rotating the knee
  • sensation of weakness or the knee giving out

Diagnosis of Torn Meniscus

If you fear you have suffered a tear in your meniscus, seeking evaluation by an orthopaedic surgeon can help determine the proper treatment options. An orthopaedic surgeon can assess your injury by observing you walk and might manipulate your knee in different positions. Use of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be used for this evaluation as it will produce images of hard and soft tissue, unlike an x-ray.


Once a torn meniscus has been diagnosed, your doctor can provide a treatment plan. Depending on the severity of the tear, the options could range from simple rest to surgical intervention. Taking pressure off you knee will help promote healing. In addition, avoid any twisting motion of the knee. Over the counter medications can relieve pain and use of ice can help decrease the swelling. Physical therapy may be a part of your treatment plan to strengthen the muscles around the knee and provide more support and stability. If these more conservative approaches to treatment aren’t effective, surgery might be necessary.

Clavicle Injury: When to See an Orthopaedic Surgeon

What is the Clavicle?

The clavicle, commonly known as the collarbone, is the bone that connects the shoulder to the breastbone. If you have suffered a trauma to this bone, you are likely in a great deal of pain. It can be tricky to determine whether or not to seek medical treatment. Depending on the severity of the injury and the level of pain, you might need intervention from an orthopaedic surgeon.

Sings and Symptoms of Broken Clavicle

  • Swelling, redness, tenderness or bruising to the clavicle area
  • Inability to move the shoulder
  • Deformity of the bone, seemingly protruding out, stretching the skin
  • Pain that increases with movement
  • Experiencing a grinding sound when trying to move the shoulder
  • Painful bulge or bump over the injured area
  • Sagging position of the shoulder

Diagnosis and Treatment

If you are experiencing any of these symptoms following an orthopaedic trauma to the clavicle area, seeing an orthopaedic surgeon for a diagnosis can help determine the best treatment approach. Your physician will examine the injured area and likely do an x-ray or CT scan not only to confirm a fracture but to also assess the surrounding joints to determine if there is further damage.

While many clavicle breaks can heal with minimal intervention, there are some cases that require surgery. For this reason, proper diagnosis by an orthopaedic surgeon is essential. Treatment may include an immobilizing sling that will keep the shoulder in place and allow for the bone to heal correctly. Pain relievers can help with discomfort while the injury heals.

In the cases of multiple fractures to the clavicle bone, bone breaking through the skin, or a severely displaced bone, surgery could be the best option to ensure optimal results. Failure to treat this type of injury could lead to further complications including osteoarthritis, nerve or blood vessel injury, or slow healing.

Broken Toe Diagnosis and Treatment

Symptoms of a Broken Toe

A broken toe may seem like a minor injury as it impacts a small bone. But if you have ever suffered from this type of break, you know how substantially it can impact your daily life. From pain to limited mobility, dealing with the aftermath of a toe injury can be very difficult.

If you suspect you may have broken your toe, you are likely in a lot of pain and considering whether or not you need to see and orthopaedic surgeon. So how do you know if it is broken and requiring medical attention? The following signs and symptoms can suggest a broken toe:

  • Swelling
  • Throbbing pain or pain that will not go away
  • Bruising or discoloring, including under the toenail
  • Numbness
  • Inability to bear weight on the toe
  • Disfigured or misshapen toe joint
  • Rigidness or inability to bend the toe


If you suspect you have broken your toe, it is wise to have it evaluated by an orthopaedic surgeon, specifically a surgeon with a speciality in foot and ankle. Getting the proper diagnosis early will aid in the proper treatment.

Diagnosis will involve a physical exam in which the doctor will check for tenderness, swelling, discoloration and ability to move the toe. The exam may also involve an x-ray to confirm a break.


After diagnosis of a broken toe, the doctor will assess the appropriate treatment plan. In order to manage pain, the doctor might recommend over the counter pain medications such as Tylenol, Aleve or Ibuprofren.

In addition to pain management, stabilizing the toe to prevent it from moving will help it to heal properly. Some ways to accomplish this include wearing a post-surgical shoe with a stiff bottom, use of a walking cast, or “buddy taping” the broken toe to the toe next to it.

Although less common, some broken toes could require surgery in order to heal properly. For this reason, an evaluation by a foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeon would cover all bases. The surgeon is able to do a thorough evaluation and rule out whether or not a procedure is necessary.


Concussion Symptoms: Diagnosis and Treatment in Athletes

Concussion Definition

A concussion is a type of injury to the brain that results from some sort of trauma to the head. This type of injury usually results in temporary symptoms, however, there are sometimes lasting effects impacting memory and concentration. Whether the trauma results from a contact sport like hockey, soccer or football; a car accident; or a fall, the symptoms can have a significant impact on your daily life


Depending on the severity of the concussion, there are a number of symptoms that can occur. In addition, there can be a delayed onset in some symptoms, making it tricky to diagnose. Some of the most common symptoms of a concussion can include:

  • Headache
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Ringing in the ear or ears
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Feeling drowsy or fatigued
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Experiencing blurred or double vision
  • Confusion
  • Memory loss
  • Feeling disoriented
  • Sensitivity to light and noise
  • Disrupted sleep patterns
  • Slurred speech
  • “Feeling “dazed” or “seeing stars”
  • Feeling in a “fog” or “underwater”

Individuals with a concussion could experience one or more of the above symptoms. In addition, some of the symptoms may be delayed. Therefore, it is very important to monitor a person that has suffered a head trauma to recognize any new or worsening symptoms and to seek diagnosis and treatment if necessary.

Athletes in Contact Sports

Certain types of contact sports could put athletes at a higher risk for concussion. The highest incidence of concussion in sports occurs in football, soccer, hockey, basketball and rugby. Further, athletes that have experienced a concussion are more likely to sustain additional concussions.

Treatment and Steps to Recovery

  1. Rest and avoid risk for additional head trauma.
  2. Return to light activity first as symptoms leave.
  3. Resume moderate activity when symptoms are mostly gone.
  4. Return to regular activity when all symptoms are gone and do not return with physical activity.






Knee Replacement Recovery: What to Expect

Is a Knee Replacement Right For You?

If you are contemplating a knee replacement, there are likely several factors you are considering in deciding on this type of surgery. You are probably thinking about the procedure itself, the risks, benefits and recovery process. Experiencing chronic pain in the knee and limited range of motion can impact your quality of life and ability to do daily activities. Climbing stairs, getting up from a seated position and even walking can be extremely difficult for someone with arthritis in the knee, a worn out joint or certain knee injuries. For this reason, knee replacement can seem like a great option.

What is a Knee Replacement?

During a knee replacement, an orthopaedic surgeon will make an incision above the knee, replacing damaged bone and cartilage with metal and/or plastic parts. This procedure is fairly common and will typically last for about 15 to 20 years. Patients that undergo a knee replacement can often benefit from an improved quality of life, significant decrease in pain and improved mobility.

What to Expect During Recovery

If you are contemplating a knee replacement, there are a number of considerations to keep in mind. Once you understand the procedure, you will want to know what to expect in the days, weeks and months after the surgery. The average recovery time for this procedure is six months, however, returning to rigorous physical activity can take up to twelve months for some patients. Age, weight and overall health are factors that can impact recovery timelines. For the first several weeks, you may need assistance walking including the use of a walker or crutches.

One of the risks associated with knee replacement surgery is a developing a blood clot. To help avoid this complication, it is best to try to get up and walk soon after surgery, using assistance or crutches. Wearing compression socks and taking blood thinners after surgery can also decrease the likelihood of a blood clot.

Physical therapy will be a key component of recovery after surgery. This will begin immediately after surgery but the duration and frequency of physical therapy can vary widely from one person to another. Some people will need up to four months of physical therapy while others will not need therapy beyond six or eight weeks.

If you are considering a knee replacement, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits with your orthopaedic surgeon. Making a list of questions prior to meeting with your doctor is a great way to assure you get all of the information you need to make an informed decision.


Knee Injuries: Common Orthopaedic Signs and Symptoms

Knee Injuries

Knee Injuries are some of the most common orthopaedic injuries. The knee is a complex joint that supports the entire body and takes on a lot of daily stress. No matter your activity level, weight or age, your knees are susceptible to injury.

Types of Knee Injuries

Some of the most common types of knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains and tears. Ligaments, tendons and the meniscus are components of the knee that can easily sustain an injury. If experiencing knee pain or instability, it is important to get the appropriate diagnosis in order to determine the right course of treatment.

  • Meniscus tears are often the result of a twisting, pivoting or a cutting motion. This is a common sports injury but can also result from arthritis or a fluke motion while trying to get up from a seated position.
  • Knee fractures typically occur from a motor vehicle accident or falling from a significant height. Types of knee fractures include patellar fractures, distal femur fractures and proximal tibia fractures.
  • Tendon tears involving the patellar tendon or the quadriceps tendon are common in people who play sports that involve running and jumping. Direct force to the front of the knee can also result in a tear of one of the knee tendons.
  • Knee dislocations occur when bones of the knee are forced out of place. These injuries can result from sports related contact, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident.
  • Anterior cruciate ligament injuries most often occur while playing a sport such as soccer, football or basketball. The injury typically results from landing incorrectly or changing direction rapidly.
  • Posterior cruciate ligament injuries occur frequently from trauma to the front of the knee, while the knee is bent. This type of injury is common in motor vehicle accidents and sports.
  • Medial collateral ligament injuries are typically contact injuries that are caused by a direct blow to the outside of the knee.
  • Lateral collateral ligament injuries are less common as they result from a blow to the inside of the knee, pushing it outwards.

Symptoms and Treatment

With such a variety of injuries that can occur in the knee, it is clear that proper evaluation and diagnosis are key in finding the correct treatment. If you are suffering from knee pain that doesn’t subside or worsens over time, it is important to be evaluated by an orthopaedic surgeon. Swelling as well as  inability to bend or straighten the knee are also signs that you may have one of the above injuries. Some injuries will require surgery but others may heal on their own or with physical therapy.

Overuse Injuries: Prevention for Youth Athletes

Overuse Injuries in Athletes

Orthopaedic surgeons have seen an increase in the occurrence of overuse injuries in children over the past several years. This shift has been associated primarily with youth athletes.  The trend to specialize in a single sport at a young age has certainly contributed to the rise in overuse injuries in this population.

Overuse injuries occur when an individual uses the same muscle groups and applies stress on specific areas of the body repeatedly. The pressure to compete can push athletes to overtrain. In addition, without an appropriate amount of rest in between, the likelihood of injury increases even more.

Some of the most common overuse injuries involve the knee and the foot. The lower body tends to take on the most impact. In addition, shoulder and elbow joints suffer from repetitive motion in certain sports. Muscles, ligaments, tendons, growth plates and bones are at higher risk in children as their bodies are still growing.

Common Overuse Injuries

  • Stress Fractures result from repetitive force commonly in weight bearing bones of the leg and foot.
  • Shin Splints, also known as medial tibial stress syndrome, cause pain and discomfort on the front part of the lower leg.
  • Runner’s Knee is typically experienced as pain felt between the knee cap and thigh bone.
  • Iliotibial Band Syndrome is commonly found in runners, weightlifters and cyclists. This lateral pain can be frustrating for athletes as it can be slow to heal.
  • Achilles Tendonitis is an injury that causes an acute pain in the back of the ankle.
  • Plantar Fasciitis is a very common injury of the feet that is caused by inflammation of the soft tissue in the bottom of the foot.

Injury Prevention

If you have a youth athlete, one of the best ways to help avoid overuse injuries is by diversifying their sports participation. Avoiding specialization at an early age can decrease the likelihood of these types of injuries. Another way to help prevent injury is increasing rest time to allow growing bodies to recover in between games and practices. Pushing hydration and a healthy diet is another great way to help prevent injury. Consult an orthopaedic surgeon if you think your child is suffering from an overuse injury.

Elbow Pain: When to see an Orthopaedic Surgeon

Elbow Pain

Elbow pain can feel like an inconvenience when it begins to interfere with your daily activities. Often time will ease the discomfort. However, elbow pain can be more serious than just a nagging distraction. So how do you know when to see an orthopaedic surgeon for an assessment and when to trust that time and rest will be enough?


The elbow is a complex joint made up of bones, cartilage, nerves and ligaments. Elbow pain can be caused by a number of different things. Overuse is one of the most common causes of  this type of injury. Doing a repetitive motion such as throwing, lifting or swinging can produce wear and tear on the joint, resulting in pain.

In addition to overuse injuries, other reasons for experiencing pain in your elbow joint include, arthritis, a strain or sprain of the joint, a fracture, a dislocated elbow or trapped nerves. All of these issues can produce pain but the severity can vary significantly. Just as there are many different causes for this type of pain, there are different methods of treatment depending on the diagnosis.

When to See an Orthopaedic Surgeon

If your pain is keeping you from performing daily activities, it is possible that the injury needs medical attention. Trying to care for your elbow pain at home with rest, ice, compression and elevation (R.I.C.E.) can often times be enough. However, when the pain does not subside with these approaches, it is likely necessary to see an orthopaedic surgeon. If you are experiencing severe pain, swelling and bruising or are unable to fully extend and/or bend your elbow, it would be beneficial to get in to see a doctor. If your pain increases over time, an orthopaedic surgeon could help determine the best treatment plan. When in doubt, it is always wise to rule out anything serious by making a trip to see your doctor.